Wine tasting - Wikipedia

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move to sidebar hide (Top) 1 History 2 Tasting stages 3 Blind tasting Toggle Blind tasting subsection 3.1 Price bias 3.2 Color bias 3.3 Geographic origin bias 4 Vertical and horizontal tasting 5 Tasting flights 6 Tasting notes 7 Serving temperature Toggle Serving temperature subsection 7.1 WSET recommendations 8 Glassware 9 Wine color 10 Process Toggle Process subsection 10.1 Characteristics assessed during tasting 10.2 Connoisseur wine tasting 11 Scoring wine 12 Visiting wineries 13 Attending wine schools 14 Expectoration 15 Sensory analysis 16 Grape varieties 17 See also 18 References 19 Further reading 20 External links Toggle the table of contents

Wine tasting

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You can help expand this article with text translated from the corresponding article in French . (June 2018) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the French article. Machine translation, like DeepL or Google Translate , is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 5,971 articles in the main category , and specifying |topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing French Wikipedia article at [[:fr:Dégustation du vin]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template {{Translated|fr|Dégustation du vin}} to the talk page . For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation . Monk Testing Wine by Antonio Casanova y Estorach (c. 1886)

Wine tasting is the sensory examination and evaluation of wine . While the practice of wine tasting is as ancient as its production, a more formalized methodology has slowly become established from the 14th century onward. Modern, professional wine tasters (such as sommeliers or buyers for retailers ) use a constantly evolving specialized terminology which is used to describe the range of perceived flavors, aromas and general characteristics of a wine. More informal, recreational tasting may use similar terminology, usually involving a much less analytical process for a more general, personal appreciation. [1]

Results that have surfaced through scientific blind wine tasting suggest the unreliability of wine tasting in both experts and consumers, such as inconsistency in identifying wines based on region and price. [2]

History [ edit ]

The Sumerian stories of Gilgamesh in the 3rd millennium BCE differentiate the popular beers of Mesopotamia , as well as wines from Zagros Mountains or Lebanon . [3] In the fourth century BCE, Plato listed the main flavors of wine, and classified the aromas as "species", or families.

Aristotle proposed a sensory tasting defined by the four elements (air, water, fire, and earth) further deepened by the Roman philosopher Lucretius in the first century BCE.

Although the practice of tasting is as old as the history of wine, the term "tasting" first appeared in 1519. [4] The methodology of wine tasting was formalized by the 18th century when Linnaeus , Poncelet, and others brought an understanding of tasting up to date.

In 2004, Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck , won the Nobel Prize in Medicine for their contribution to the knowledge of the senses of taste and smell. [5]

Tasting stages [ edit ]

Ready tasting room of port wine in a wine cellar of a producer

The results of the four recognized stages to wine tasting:

appearance "in glass" the aroma of the wine "in mouth" sensations "finish" ( aftertaste ) [6]

– are combined in order to establish the following properties of a wine:

complexity and character potential (suitability for aging or drinking) possible faults

A wine's overall quality assessment, based on this examination, follows further careful description and comparison with recognized standards, both with respect to other wines in its price range and according to known factors pertaining to the region or vintage; if it is typical of the region or diverges in style; if it uses certain wine-making techniques, such as barrel fermentation or malolactic fermentation , or any other remarkable or unusual characteristics. [7]

Wine tasting at Castello di Amorosa , Napa Valley

Whereas wines are regularly tasted in isolation, a wine's quality assessment is more objective when performed alongside several other wines, in what are known as tasting "flights". Wines may be deliberately selected for their vintage ("horizontal" tasting) or proceed from a single winery ("vertical" tasting), to better compare vineyard and vintages, respectively. Alternatively, in order to promote an unbiased analysis, bottles and even glasses may be disguised in a "blind" tasting, to rule out any prejudicial awareness of either vintage or winery.

Blind tasting [ edit ]

Main article: Blind wine tasting

To ensure impartial judgment of a wine, it should be served blind – that is, without the taster(s) having seen the label or bottle shape. Blind tasting may also involve serving the wine from a black wine glass to mask the color of the wine. A taster's judgment can be prejudiced by knowing details of a wine, such as geographic origin, price, reputation, color, or other considerations.

Scientific research has long demonstrated the power of suggestion in perception as well as the strong effects of expectancies. For example, people expect more expensive wine to have more desirable characteristics than less expensive wine. When given wine that they are falsely told is expensive they virtually always report it as tasting better than the very same wine when they are told that it is inexpensive. [8] French researcher Frédéric Brochet "submitted a mid-range Bordeaux in two different bottles, one labeled as a cheap table wine, the other bearing a grand cru etiquette." Tasters described the supposed grand cru as "woody, complex, and round" and the supposed cheap wine as "short, light, and faulty."

Similarly, people have expectations about wines because of their geographic origin , producer , vintage, color, and many other factors. For example, when Brochet served a white wine he received all the usual descriptions: "fresh, dry, honeyed, lively." Later he served the same wine dyed red and received the usual red terms: "intense, spicy, supple, deep." [9]

One of the most famous instances of blind tasting is known as the Judgment of Paris , a wine competition held in 1976 where French judges blind-tasted wines from France and California . Against all expectations, California wines bested French wines according to the judges, a result which would have been unlikely in a non-blind contest. This event was depicted in the 2008 movie Bottle Shock .

Price bias [ edit ]

Another well-publicized double-blind taste test was conducted in 2011 by Prof. Richard Wiseman of the University of Hertfordshire . In a wine tasting experiment using 400 participants, Wiseman found that general members of the public were unable to distinguish expensive wines from inexpensive ones. [10] "People just could not tell the difference between cheap and expensive wine". [11]

Color bias [ edit ]

In 2001, the University of Bordeaux asked 54 undergraduate students to taste two glasses of wine: one red, one white. The participants described the red as "jammy" and commented on its crushed red fruit. The participants failed to recognize that both wines were from the same bottle. The only difference was that one had been colored red with a flavorless dye. [12] [13]

Geographic origin bias [ edit ]

For six years, Texas A&M University invited people to taste wines labeled "France", "California", "Texas", and while nearly all ranked the French as best, in fact, all three were the same Texan wine. The contest is built on the simple theory that if people do not know what they are drinking, they award points differently than if they do know what they are drinking. [14]

Vertical and horizontal tasting [ edit ]

Vertical and horizontal wine tastings are wine tasting events that are arranged to highlight differences between similar wines. [ citation needed ]

In a vertical tasting , different vintages of the same wine type from the same winery are tasted. This emphasizes differences between various vintages. In a horizontal tasting , the wines are all from the same vintage but are from different wineries. Keeping wine variety or type and wine region the same helps emphasize differences in winery styles.

Tasting flights [ edit ]

Tasting flight is a term used by wine tasters to describe a selection of wines, usually between three and eight glasses, but sometimes as many as fifty, presented for the purpose of sampling and comparison. [ citation needed ]

Tasting notes [ edit ]

A tasting note is a taster's written testimony about the aroma, taste identification, acidity, structure, texture, and balance of a wine. Online wine communities like Bottlenotes allow members to maintain their tasting notes online and for the reference of others. [ citation needed ]

Serving temperature [ edit ]

The temperature that a wine is served at can greatly affect the way it tastes and smells. Lower temperatures emphasize acidity and tannins while muting the aromatics . Higher temperatures minimize acidity and tannins while increasing the aromatics.

Wine type Examples Temperature (Celsius) Temperature (Fahrenheit) Light-bodied sweet dessert wines Trockenbeerenauslese , Sauternes 6–10 °C 43–50 °F White sparkling wines Champagne , other sparkling wine 6–10 °C 43–50 °F Aromatic, light-bodied white Riesling , Sauvignon blanc 8–12 °C 46–54 °F Red sparkling wines Sparkling Shiraz , some frizzante Lambrusco 10–12 °C 50–54 °F Medium-bodied whites Chablis , Semillon 10–12 °C 50–54 °F Full-bodied dessert wines Oloroso Sherry , Madeira 8–12 °C 46–54 °F Light-bodied red wines Beaujolais , Provence rosé 10–12 °C 50–54 °F Full-bodied white wines Oaked Chardonnay , Rhone whites 12–16 °C 54–61 °F Medium-bodied red wines Grand Cru Burgundy , Sangiovese 14–17 °C 57–63 °F Full-bodied red wines Cabernet Sauvignon , Nebbiolo based wines 15–18 °C 59–64 °F

WSET recommendations [ edit ]

The Wine & Spirit Education Trust uses the following recommendations for serving temperatures: [15]

Sweet wines e.g. Sweet Muscats , Late-harvest wines (well chilled) 6 °C (43 °F) to 8 °C (46 °F) Sparkling wines e.g. Prosecco , Champagne (well chilled) 6 °C (43 °F) to 10 °C (50 °F) Light/medium-bodied whites e.g. Fino Sherry , Muscadet (chilled) 7 °C (45 °F) to 10 °C (50 °F) Medium/full-bodied oaked whites e.g. White Burgundy (lightly chilled) 10 °C (50 °F) to 13 °C (55 °F) Light-bodied reds e.g. Beaujolais, Valpolicella , Bardolino (lightly chilled) 13 °C (55 °F) Medium/full-bodied reds e.g. Vintage Port , Rioja , Bordeaux , Burgundy (room temperature) 15 °C (59 °F) to 18 °C (64 °F)

Glassware [ edit ]

Main article: Wine glass

The shape of a wineglass can have a subtle impact on the perception of wine, especially its bouquet. [16] [17] [18] Typically, the ideal shape is considered to be wider toward the bottom, with a narrower aperture at the top (tulip or egg-shaped). Glasses which are widest at the top are considered the least ideal. Many wine tastings use ISO XL5 glasses, [ citation needed ] which are "egg"-shaped. The effect of glass shape does not appear to be related to whether the glass is pleasing to look at. [18]

INAO official wine tasting glass.

The glass of reference is the INAO wine glass, a tool defined by specifications of the French Association for Standardization (AFNOR), which was adopted by INAO as the official glass in 1970, received its standard AFNOR in June 1971 and its ISO 3591 standard in 1972. [19] The INAO has not submitted a file at the National Institute of Industrial Property, it is therefore copied en masse and has gradually replaced other tasting glasses in the world. [20]

The glass must be lead crystal (9% lead). Its dimensions give it a total volume between 210 ml and 225 ml, they are defined as follows:

Diameter of the rim: 46 mm Calyx height: 100 mm Height of the foot: 55 mm Shoulder diameter: 65 mm Foot diameter: 9 mm Diameter of the base: 65 mm

The opening is narrower than the convex part so as to concentrate the bouquet. The capacity is approximately 215 ml, but it is intended to take a 50 ml pour. [21] Some glasses of a similar shape, but with different capacities, may be loosely referred to as ISO glasses, but they form no part of the ISO specification.

Wine color [ edit ]

Without having tasted the wines, one does not know if, for example, a white is heavy or light. Before taking a sip, the taster tries to determine the order in which the wines should be assessed by appearance and aroma alone. Heavy wines are deeper in color and generally more intense on the nose. [ citation needed ] Sweeter wines, being denser, leave thick, viscous streaks (called legs or tears ) down the inside of the glass when swirled. [ citation needed ]

Process [ edit ]

Judging color is the first step in tasting wine.

There are five basic steps in tasting wine: color, swirl, smell, taste, and savor. [22] These are also known as the "five S" steps: see, swirl, sniff, sip, savor. During this process, a taster must look for clarity, varietal character, integration, expressiveness, complexity, and connectedness. [23]

A wine's color is better judged by putting it against a white background. The wine glass is put at an angle in order to see the colors. Colors can give the taster clues to the grape variety, and whether the wine was aged in wood.

Characteristics assessed during tasting [ edit ]

Varietal character describes how much a wine presents its inherent grape aromas. [23] A wine taster also looks for integration, which is a state in which none of the components of the wine ( acid , tannin, alcohol, etc.) is out of balance with the other components. When a wine is well balanced, the wine is said to have achieved a harmonious fusion. [23]

Another important quality of the wine to look for is its expressiveness. Expressiveness is the quality the "wine possesses when its aromas and flavors are well-defined and clearly projected." [24] The complexity of the wine is affected by many factors, one of which may be the multiplicity of its flavors. The connectedness of the wine, a rather abstract and difficult to ascertain quality, describes the bond between the wine and its land of origin (terroir). [23]

Connoisseur wine tasting [ edit ]

A wine's quality can be judged by its bouquet and taste. The bouquet is the total aromatic experience of the wine. Assessing a wine's bouquet can also reveal faults such as cork taint ; oxidation due to age, overexposure to oxygen, or lack of preservatives; and wild yeast or bacterial contamination, such as those due to Acetobacter or Brettanomyces yeasts. Although low levels of Brettanomyces aromatic characteristics can be a positive attribute, giving the wine a distinctive character, generally it is considered a wine spoilage yeast.

The bouquet of wine is best revealed by gently swirling the wine in a wine glass to expose it to more oxygen and release more aromatic [25] etheric, ester, and aldehyde molecules that comprise the essential components of a wine's bouquet. [22] Sparkling wine should not be swirled to the point of releasing bubbles. [26]

Pausing to experience a wine's bouquet aids the wine taster in anticipating the wine's flavors. The "nose" of a wine – its bouquet or aroma – is the major determinate of perceived flavor in the mouth. Once inside the mouth, the aromatics are further liberated by exposure to body heat, and transferred retronasally to the olfactory receptor site. It is here that the complex taste experience characteristic of a wine actually commences.

Thoroughly tasting a wine involves perception of its array of taste and mouthfeel attributes, which involve the combination of textures, flavors, weight, and overall "structure". Following appreciation of its olfactory characteristics, the wine taster savors a wine by holding it in the mouth for a few seconds to saturate the taste buds . By pursing one's lips and breathing through that small opening, oxygen passes over the wine and releases even more esters. When the wine is allowed to pass slowly through the mouth it presents the connoisseur with the fullest gustatory profile available to the human palate.

The acts of pausing and focusing through each step distinguishes wine tasting from simple quaffing. Through this process, the full array of aromatic molecules is captured and interpreted by approximately 15 million olfactory receptors, [25] comprising a few hundred olfactory receptor classes. When tasting several wines in succession, however, key aspects of this fuller experience (length and finish, or aftertaste) must necessarily be sacrificed through expectoration.

Although taste qualities are known to be widely distributed throughout the oral cavity, the concept of an anatomical " tongue map " yet persists in the wine tasting arena, in which different tastes are believed to map to different areas of the tongue. A widely accepted example is the misperception that the tip of the tongue uniquely tells how sweet a wine is and the upper edges tell its acidity. [25]

Scoring wine [ edit ]

Main article: Wine rating See also: Wine tasting descriptors

As part of the tasting process, and as a way of comparing the merits of the various wines, wines are given scores according to a relatively set system. This may be either by explicitly weighting different aspects, or by global judgment (although the same aspects would be considered). These aspects are 1) the appearance of the wine, 2) the nose or smell, 3) the palate or taste, and 4) overall. [27] Different systems weight these differently (e.g., appearance 15%, nose 35%, palate 50%). Typically, no modern wine would score less than half on any scale (which would effectively indicate an obvious fault). It is more common for wines to be scored out of 20 (including half marks) in Europe and parts of Australasia, and out of 100 in the US. However, different critics tend to have their own preferred system, and some gradings are also given out of 5 (again with half marks). [28]

Visiting wineries [ edit ]

Main article: Enotourism

Traveling to wine regions is one way of increasing skill in tasting. Many wine producers in wine regions all over the world offer tastings of their wine. Depending on the country or region, tasting at the winery may incur a small charge to allow the producer to cover costs.

It is not considered rude to spit out wine at a winery, even in the presence of the wine maker or owner. Generally, a spittoon is provided. In some regions of the world, tasters simply spit on the floor or onto gravel surrounding barrels. It is polite to inquire about where to spit before beginning tasting.

Attending wine schools [ edit ]

A growing number of wine schools can be found, offering wine tasting classes to the public. These programs often help a wine taster hone and develop their abilities in a controlled setting. Some also offer professional training for sommeliers and winemakers. It is even possible to learn how to assess wine methodically via e-learning. [29]

Expectoration [ edit ]

Spitting into a spittoon at a wine tasting

Because intoxication can affect the consumer's judgment, wine tasters generally spit the wine out after they have assessed its quality at formal tastings, where dozens of wines may be assessed. However, since wine is absorbed through the skin inside the mouth, tasting from twenty to twenty-five samplings can still produce an intoxicating effect, depending on the alcoholic content of the wine. [30]

Sensory analysis [ edit ]

Tasting plays an important role in the sensory analysis (also referred to as organoleptic analysis) of wine. Employing a trained or consumer panel, oenologists may perform a variety of tests on the taste, aroma, mouthfeel and appeal of wines. Difference tests are important in determining whether different fermentation conditions or new vineyard treatments alter the character of a wine, something particularly important to producers who aim for consistency. Preference testing establishes consumer preference, while descriptive analysis determines the most prominent traits of the wine, some of which grace back labels. Blind tasting and other laboratory controls help mitigate bias and assure statistically significant results. Many large wine companies now boast their own sensory team, optimally consisting of a Ph.D. sensory scientist, a flavor chemist and a trained panel.

Grape varieties [ edit ]

Wine grape varieties are variously evaluated according to a wide range of descriptors which draw comparisons with other, non-grape flavors and aromas. [31] [32] The following table provides a brief and by no means exhaustive summary of typical descriptors for the better-known varietals.

Red grape variety Common sensory descriptors Cabernet Franc tobacco , green bell pepper, raspberry, freshly mown grass Cabernet Sauvignon blackcurrants, eucalyptus, chocolate, tobacco Gamay pomegranate, strawberry Grenache smoky, pepper, raspberry Malbec violet, plums, tart red fruit, earthy minerality Merlot black cherry, plums, tomato Mourvèdre thyme, clove, cinnamon, black pepper, violet, blackberry Nebbiolo leather, tar, stewed prunes, chocolate, liquorice , roses, prunes Norton red fruit, elderberries Petite Sirah (Durif) earthy, black pepper, dark fruits Petit Verdot violets (later), pencil shavings Pinot noir raspberry, cherry, violets, "farmyard" (with age), truffles Pinotage bramble fruits , earthy, smoky Sangiovese herbs, black cherry, leathery, earthy Syrah (Shiraz) tobacco, black/white pepper, blackberry, smoke Tempranillo vanilla, strawberry, tobacco Teroldego spices, chocolate, red fruits Zinfandel black cherry, pepper, mixed spices, mint, anise White grape variety Common sensory descriptors Albariño lemon , minerals, apricot, peach Breidecker apple , pear Chardonnay butter, melon , apple, pineapple , vanilla (if oaked, e.g. vinified or aged in new oak aging barrels ) Chenin blanc wet wool, beeswax , honey, apple, almond Gewürztraminer rose petals, lychee , spice Grüner Veltliner green apple , citrus Marsanne almond, honeysuckle , marzipan Melon de Bourgogne lime , salt , green apple Muscato honey , grapes, lime Palomino honeydew , citrus, raw nuts Pinot gris (Pinot grigio) white peach , pear, apricot Prosecco apple, honey, musk , citrus Riesling citrus fruits, peach, honey, petrol Sauvignon blanc gooseberry , lime, asparagus , cut grass, bell pepper (capsicum), grapefruit, passionfruit, cat pee (tasters' term for guava) [33] Sémillon honey, orange , lime Trebbiano (Ugni blanc) lime, herbs Verdicchio apple, minerals, citrus, lemon, almond Vermentino pear, cream , green fruits Viognier peach, pear, nutmeg , apricot

See also [ edit ]

Wine portal Aroma wheel Coffee cupping Tea tasting Typicity Wine accessory Wine and food matching

References [ edit ]

^ Peynaud, Émile (1996) The Taste of Wine: The Art and Science of Wine Appreciation , London: Macdonald Orbis, p. 1 . ^ Hodgson, Robert T., "How Expert are "Expert" Wine Judges?" , Journal of Wine Economics , Vol. 4; Issue 02 (Winter 2009), pp. 233–241. ^ Émile Peynaud, The taste of wine , p. 1 Dunod, 2013 Google books link . ^ "Tasting: Definition and etymology" . . Retrieved 12 December 2016 . ^ Buck, L.; Axel, R. (5 April 1991). "A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors: A molecular basis for odor recognition" . Cell . 65 (1): 175–87. doi : 10.1016/0092-8674(91)90418-x . PMID 1840504 . ^ Ronald S. Jackson, Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook , pp. 2–3 . ^ Peynaud, Émile (1996). = The Taste of Wine: The Art and Science of Wine Appreciation , London: Macdonald Orbis, p. 2 . ^ Chemical Object Representation in the Field of Consciousness – Frédéric Brochet . ^ Wine Snob Scandal – Brochet's work on dyed wine . ^ Georgiou, Maroulla (15 April 2011). "Expensive and inexpensive wines taste the same, research shows" . Phys.Org . ^ Sample, Ian (14 April 2011). "Expensive wine and cheap plonk taste the same to most people" . The Guardian . ^ "Wine-tasting: it's junk science"; The Guardian ; June 22, 2013. ^ Morrot, Gil; Brochet, Frédéric; Dubourdieu, Denis (28 August 2001). "The Color of Odors" (pdf) . . Academic Press. doi : 10.1006/brln.2001.2493 . Retrieved 23 March 2023 . The interaction between the vision of colors and odor determination is investigated through lexical analysis of experts' wine tasting comments. The analysis shows that the odors of a wine are, for the most part, represented by objects that have the color of the wine. The assumption of the existence of a perceptual illusion between odor and color is confirmed by a psychophysical experiment. A white wine artificially colored red with an odorless dye was olfactory described as a red wine by a panel of 54 tasters. Hence, because of the visual information, the tasters discounted the olfactory information. Together with recent psychophysical and neuroimaging data, our results suggest that the above perceptual illusion occurs during the verbalization phase of odor determination. ^ "Liquid Assets – A fair competition"; The Austin Chronicle ; April 8, 2005. ^ Wine & Spirits Education Trust "Wine and Spirits: Understanding Wine Quality" p. 66, Second Revised Edition (2012), London, ISBN 978-1905819157 ^ Huttenbrink, K.; Schmidt, C.; Delwiche, J.; Hummel, T. (2001). "The aroma of red wine is modified by the form of the wine glass". Laryno-Rhino-Otologie . 80 (2): 96–100. doi : 10.1055/s-2001-11894 . PMID 11253572 . ^ Delwiche, J.; Pelchat, M. (2002). "Influence of glass shape on wine aroma". Journal of Sensory Studies . 17 (1): 19–28. doi : 10.1111/j.1745-459x.2002.tb00329.x . ^ a b Hummel, T.; Delwiche, J.; Schmidt, C.; Huttenbrink, K. (2003). "Effects of the form of glasses on the perception of wine flavors: a study in untrained subjects". Appetite . 41 (2): 197–202. doi : 10.1016/s0195-6663(03)00082-5 . PMID 14550318 . S2CID 9626855 . ^ "Le verre ISO ou verre INAO" . . Retrieved 12 December 2016 . ^ Le verre et le vin de la cave à la table du |XVII à nos jours (Glass and Wine from the Cellar to the Table from the 17th century to the Present) Christophe Bouneau, Michel Figeac, 2007. Centre d'études des mondes moderne et contemporain. In French ^ "ISO 3591:1977" . . Retrieved 9 February 2012 . (payment required) ^ a b Zraly, Kevin (2005). Windows on the World: Complete Wine Course ; Sterling Publishing [ page needed ] ^ a b c d MacNeil, Karen (2001). The Wine Bible ; Workman Publishing, New York [ page needed ] ^ MacNeil, Karen (2001). The Wine Bible ; Workman Publishing, New York, p. 5. ^ a b c Gluckstern, Willie (1998). The Wine Avenger . Simon & Schuster, Inc. ^ "Eviter les erreurs Encyclopédie des Vignes au plaisir" (in French). ^ Professional Friends of Wine ^ Wine-Searcher ^ Wine Campus offers an Honours Brevet via e-learning ^ Walton, Stuart (2005) [2002]. Cook's Encyclopedia of Wine . Anness Publishing Limited. pp. 10, 11 . ISBN 0-7607-4220-0 . ^ Varietal Profiles | Professional Friends of Wine ^ Grape Varieties Explained ^ "Sauvignon Blanc | Wine grapes" . . Retrieved 7 January 2016 .

Further reading [ edit ]

Jefford, Andrew (2008). Andrew Jefford's Wine Course . London: Ryland Peters & Small. ISBN 978-1-84597-723-8 . Schuster, Michael (2009). Essential Winetasting: The Complete Practical Winetasting Course . London: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1-84533-498-7 . Broadbent, Michael (2003). Michael Broadbent's Wine Tasting . London: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 1-84000-854-7 . Emile Peynaud; Jacques Blouin (1996). The Taste of Wine: The Art Science of Wine Appreciation . John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-471-11376-8 . Robinson, Jancis (1999). Tasting Pleasure . New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-027001-9 . Simon, Pat (2000). Wine-tasters' Logic . London: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-0-571-20287-4 . Supp, Eckhard (2005). Der Brockhaus – Wein . Mannheim: F.A. Brockhaus. ISBN 3-7653-0281-3 . Taber, George M. (2005). Judgment of Paris: California vs. France and the Historic 1976 Paris Tasting that Revolutionized Wine . New York: Scribner Book Company. ISBN 0-7432-4751-5 . Walton, Stuart (2005) [2002]. Cook's Encyclopedia of Wine . China: Anness Publishing Limited. ISBN 0-7607-4220-0 . Jackson, Ronald S. (2002). Wine Tasting: A Professional Handbook (1st ed.). United States: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-379076-X . Hurley, Jon (2005). A Matter of Taste: a History of Wine Drinking in Britain (1st ed.). United Kingdom: Tempus. ISBN 0-7524-3402-0 .

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